Letters of Protest – Interesting Initial Findings

We’re now starting to index Letter of Protest decisions — the “Letter of Protest Memorandum” responses. These are classified as “Administrative Response (ADR)” as a “Document Type,” under “Office Action Criteria” in manual Search. Occasionally, a Letter of Protest itself makes it into the file for some reason — these are flagged as “Letter of Protest” or “LOP.”

This blog post takes an initial look at some of the more interesting trends that we noticed from some initial research.

A. The Vast Majority are 2(d)-related.

Unsurprisingly, most Letters of Protest decisions (and thus most Letters of Protest) are attempts to keep third-party applications for arguably similar marks. These accounted for 95%+ of the currently-flagged Protest-related content. Of those that had ADR or LOP flags, only about 12% made it through to registration, suggesting that Letters of Protest are extremely effective tools in proactively protecting clients’ trademarks.

B. The Red Cross is Super Active

The Red Cross seems to be filing a bunch of Letters of Protest relating to use of the cross or “plus” designs.

Sometimes, they just point out that the design element might be a “Swiss flag,” e.g. a black and white logo for healthcare cost tracking and insurance apps (abandoned) and a mark for IMMUNITYAID (with the white cross in the red “D”) for dietary supplements (registered; no refusal issued).

In others, they more expressly make a 2(a) claim based on the Red Cross mark. These are often but not always medical related, e.g. compare a G+ mark for surgical equipment (published for opposition) and POWER PLUS for motor oil (still pending, 2(d) refusal unrelated to the Red Cross). Sometimes these do result in 2(d) refusals, like a dove+red cross design for healthcare services (abandoned), or 2(a) refusals, like THRIVE HYDRATION & design (cross in the “t”) for vitamin injection services.

C. Specimen Protests Haven’t Been Especially Common

While most Letters of Protest related to 2(d) refusals, there were a few specimen ones! A number resulted in digitally-altered image refusals, and applications so refused usually went abandoned. Not always, though; some applicants just swapped in a substitute specimen and made it through to registration.

We’ll pay attention to these as the data pool expands. In the meantime, enjoy the new research opportunities!

Assessing a 2(d) Refusal – UNQUESTIONABLY GOOD for hard seltzer

We like to take a look at interesting 2(d) refusals. They present interesting fact patterns, and they can help us show you how to make the best use of some of TM TKO’s tools.

Today’s Refusal

Today, we are looking at an application filed by Anheuser-Busch for the mark UNQUESTIONABLY GOOD for hard seltzer. It ran into a 2(d) refusal based on a registration for the mark UNQUESTIONABLY ORIGINAL, disclaiming “original,” for beer and beer garden services, owned by District 9 Brewing Company.

The Prosecution History thus far

A-B got an initial refusal in September, filed one round of arguments in March, and got a final refusal on April 7, 2021.

Differences Between the Marks?

A-B argued at length that UNQUESTIONABLY is laudatory, and supports the second words in each mark — and that GOOD and ORIGINAL are quite different. Even though our knockout algorithms emphasize UNQUESTIONABLY quite a lot as a part of the mark, and score UNQUESTIONABLY ORIGINAL as one of the top couple of results, I’m actually very sympathetic to this argument. Because of the differences between the marks, I agree with A-B the consumers wouldn’t confuse the two marks.

The UNQUESTIONABLY ORIGINAL mark is a slogan used by the registrant — a secondary mark paired with its D9 Brewing house mark.

A-B’s real-world use of the mark is also secondary, although not as clear-cut. A-B is using the mark in plain text on their website, e.g. “…, and is filtered five times for an unquestionably good taste.” That’s not even a trademark use, but might cause problems under 2(e)(1) or “failure to function” grounds during specimen examination. The company is also using it with a video series called a “Flavor Journal,” where the “Thirsty Bartenders” vloggers and a guest come up with “Unquestionably Good” food/beverage pairings using Bud Light Seltzer. That’s probably not going to cut it as a specimen of use with the USPTO either.

Nevertheless, it seems to support the idea that neither mark is “primary” on the minds of customers — those are the BUD LIGHT and D9 BREWING marks, or possibly a secondary, beer-specific mark on the D9 side. Alas, the USPTO doesn’t consider this — perhaps examination outcomes would be more consistent and more closely matched with reality if the Office could consider the real-world centrality (or lack thereof) of a mark in its commercial context in the context of considering 2(d) refusals. It makes sense why it doesn’t — a registrant could claim secondary use in prosecution and later expand it — but it still seems like something can be done to improve results.

We took a quick look, via ThorCheck’s Term Coexistence search, at otherwise similar marks that differ in this way — one has ORIGINAL, the other GOOD. There were slim pickings in the beverage classes — SINFULLY GOOD SPIRITS! vs. ORIGINAL SIN was the best we found. Term coexistence examples like this are always a bit chance-based, since two companies have to happen to pick names that differ in exactly this way.

Differences Between the Goods?

A-B is pushing uphill here — the Examining Attorney emphasized evidence that various products use the same mark for both beer and hard seltzer, including A-B’s own Bud Light brand, Michelob Ultra, Corona, and more. Perhaps because of this, A-B did not contest the relationships of the goods in the first Office Action Response. Perhaps, also, A-B did not wish to go on record arguing that two products are not closely related — it wouldn’t want to have that quoted back to it during a later enforcement effort.

We used ThorCheck to do a comparison between “beer” and “hard seltzer.” While there are certainly examples of the same companies providing both under the same or similar marks (more on that shortly), there are also a lot of examples of similar marks co-existing.

OwnerGoodsMarkMarkGoodsOwner
Summit Brewing Company032 beerSUMMIT BREWING COMPANY
Disclaims: “BREWING COMPANY”
Reg: 3061467
Serial: 76383607
Registered And Renewed
Reg: 02/28/2006
Filed: 03/13/2002
SUMMIT SELTZER
Disclaims: “SELTZER”
Reg: 6206853
Serial: 88576621
Registered
Reg: 11/24/2020
Filed: 08/13/2019
033 hard seltzerSummit Seltzer Company LLC
DC BRAU BREWING LLC032 beerTHE CITIZEN
Reg: 4169260
Serial: 85374727
Section 8 & 15 – Accepted And Acknowledged
Reg: 07/03/2012
Filed: 07/19/2011
CITIZEN SELTZER
Disclaims: “SELTZER”
Reg: 6171247
Serial: 88730364
Registered
Reg: 10/06/2020
Filed: 12/17/2019
033 hard seltzerCitizen Cider, LLC
Mad Scientists Brewing Partners LLC032 beerEXPRESS
Reg: 3990176
Serial: 85209319
Section 8 & 15 – Accepted And Acknowledged
Reg: 07/05/2011
Filed: 01/03/2011
TROPICAL EXPRESS
Disclaims: “TROPICAL”
Reg: 6310176
Serial: 88753462
Registered
Reg: 03/30/2021
Filed: 01/09/2020
033 hard seltzerDraught Works, LLC
Vino.com, LLC032 aleNECTAR ALES
Disclaims: “ALES”
Reg: 4295409
Serial: 85664805
Section 8 & 15 – Accepted And Acknowledged
Reg: 02/26/2013
Filed: 06/28/2012
NECTAR
Reg: 6218762
Serial: 88785906
Supplemental Reg.
Registered
Reg: 12/08/2020
Filed: 02/05/2020
033 hard seltzerDivinely Nectar, Inc.
Belliveau, Justin R.032 beerGRID CITY BEER WORKS
Disclaims: “BEER WORKS”
Reg: 6257431
Serial: 87300104
Registered
Reg: 01/26/2021
Filed: 01/13/2017
GRID CITY BUBBLE WORKS
Disclaims: “WORKS”
Reg: 6171375
Serial: 88785058
Registered
Reg: 10/06/2020
Filed: 02/04/2020
033 hard seltzerGrid City Beer Works
Caldera Brewing Company032 aleASHLAND AMBER
Disclaims: “AMBER”
Reg: 3844351
Serial: 77897387
2(f) claim
Registered And Renewed
Reg: 09/07/2010
Filed: 12/18/2009
ASHLAND HARD SELTZER
Disclaims: “HARD SELTZER”
Reg: 6263853
Serial: 88642477
Registered
Reg: 02/09/2021
Filed: 10/04/2019
033 hard seltzerAshland Beverages, LLC
East Nashville Beer Works, LLC032 beerEAST NASHVILLE BEER WORKS
Disclaims: “BEER WORKS”
Reg: 5070316
Serial: 86764667
Supplemental Reg.
Registered
Reg: 10/25/2016
Filed: 09/22/2015
NASHVILLE SELTZER
Disclaims: “SELTZER”
Reg: 5958107
Serial: 88573835
Supplemental Reg.
Registered
Reg: 01/07/2020
Filed: 08/09/2019
033 hard seltzerTaylor, Kent C.
Sideways Brewing Company, LLC032 beerSIDEWAYS FARM & BREWERY
Disclaims: “FARM & BREWERY”
Reg: 5885805
Serial: 87385887
Registered
Reg: 10/15/2019
Filed: 03/26/2017
#GET SIDEWAYS
Reg: 6135704
Serial: 88787476
Registered
Reg: 08/25/2020
Filed: 02/06/2020
033 hard seltzerIslamorada Distilling LLC
The Denver Beer Company, LLC032 beerMAUI EXPRESS
Reg: 5260511
Serial: 87290760
Registered
Reg: 08/08/2017
Filed: 01/05/2017
MAUI HARD SELTZER
Disclaims: “HARD SELTZER”
Reg: 6044346
Serial: 88681927
Supplemental Reg.
Registered
Reg: 04/28/2020
Filed: 11/06/2019
033 hard seltzerKahu ‘Ohani Inc.

We also took a quick look at overlap — where the same company used the same mark for both beer and hard seltzer, just to assess the strength of the argument. Large brewers make up a lot of the results – A-B has several marks (BUD LIGHT, NATURAL LIGHT, ALOHA BEACHES), ; several smaller brewers also have registrations for both, like Great Divide (WHITEWATER), Craft Brew Alliance (OMISSION), Spruce Street (TWO ROBBERS), Detroit Rivertown (ATWATER), Montauk Bewing (MOUNTAUK). Interestingly, Kahu ‘Ohnana, mentioned above, owns registrations for MAUI BREWING CO. and MAUI HARD SELTZER that co-exist with the MAUI EXPRESS registration noted above.

We also took a look at prosecution histories to attempt to find filings for “hard seltzer” that overcame prior registrations for “beer.” Here is the search to do so, for TM TKO users. This yields a few good examples, including the aforementioned ASHLAND HARD SELTZER vs. ASHLAND AMBER (arguments, including statistically-driven arguments that most beer makers do not make hard seltzer and vice versa*). Also, the search finds some really interesting non-refusals: an A-B registration for SOCIAL CLUB did not receive a citation to some prior registrations for SOCIAL for goods including beer, notwithstanding a Letter of Protest seeking as much. SPYK’D (for hard seltzer) “ran into” a similar non-issued Office Action vs. SPIKE (for beer and booze) — a Letter of Protest was accepted but didn’t generate refusal.

* ThorCheck helps with this type of argument — its charts show that there are over 18,000 active, use-based registrations for beer vs. under 200 for hard seltzer, and only ~10 show overlap in production. Unsurprisingly, the Ashland arguments focused on the percentage of beer producers vs. the percentage of cider producers!

Springtime: Flowers, Trees, and Trademarks

It’s a beautiful spring so far, and we’re all enjoying the pretty blossoms and the pollen-driven sneezes that go along with getting outdoors. To honor the return of all the grasses, trees, and other plants in our lives, we’re taking a closer look at how trademarks interact with these products.

Trademarks for Plants

Can you get a trademark for a brand that you will use with plants? Of course! Recent registrations for apple trees include marks like SERUI, CRIMSON SNOW, APIFRUIT, COSMIC CRISP, SUBLIME ORGANICS, BUD 10, KIKU, RED ROMANCE, and many more.

Varietal and Cultivar Names

There is a big exception — the “varietal” or “cultivar” names of a cultivated variety of subspecies of a plant or seed. The Office considers these to be the equivalent of the “generic” name for the plant or seed, regardless of whether the name is a fanciful name or a code. TMEP § 1202.12. The varietal or cultivar name is used in a plant patent as the identifier for the variety of plant or seed, and remains so regardless of whether the patent expires. In re Pennington Seed Co., 466 F.3d 1053, 80 USPQ2d 1758, 1762 (Fed. Cir. 2006).

Examination of Varietal and Cultivar Names

The Office starts by checking the registry of names under the Plant Variety Protection Act. The TMEP lists http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/searchgrin.html as the URL, but the Germplasm Resources Information Network (“GRIN”) database has apparently been updated to https://www.ars-grin.gov/PVP/Search. Dictionary evidence and more can also be relevant, as is WIPO’s fantastic PLUTO Plant Variety Database https://www3.wipo.int/pluto/user/en/index.jsp.

Some of these plant varietals are simply alphanumeric codes; it’s unusual for a company to ever attempt to protect these as a trademark. For example:

PVP Application Summary: 200000290

Application StatusCertificate Issued
Status Date5/2/2002
ApplicantMonsanto Technology, LLC
Cultivar (Variety) Name22DHQ3
Experimental NameNA
Common NameCORN
Scientific NameZea mays L.
Certified Seed?No
GRIN-Global AvailabilityNot Available
Full Certificate PDF

More arbitrary names are another matter altogether. Companies often pick a name for the new product without taking trademark concerns into account, and attempt to protect the cultivar name as a trademark. This never goes well.

The Office views these as incapable of functioning as a trademark – the equivalent of an insurmountable genericness refusal. No amount of advertising expenditure can salvage it as a mark. See, e.g., In re Farmer Seed & Nursery Co., 137 USPQ 231, 231-32 (TTAB 1963). It doesn’t even matter if the varietal name was never actually used — it’s sufficient that it was registered as a varietal name. In re American Onion Int’l, Inc., Ser. No. 76660662, p. 5 (TTAB Aug. 8, 2008), available at https://ttabvue.uspto.gov/ttabvue/v?pno=76660662&pty=EXA&eno=13. However, if a term is a variety name for one type of plant (like a dianthus) it won’t bar registration of that term for a different plant (like an apple tree), at least if the applicant makes that clear in their description of goods. See, e.g., the registration for RED ROMANCE, Reg. No. 5493245.

The University of Minnesota, which developed the varietal, attempted to register HONEYCRISP for “apple trees, namely variety Minnesota 1711 R.” Ser. No. 74156209. The Office’s online records are spotty in the early 1990s, and the full file history is not online, but it went abandoned due to a failure to respond to an Office Action — we can confidently assume that it foundered on the plant varietal refusal. In other applications, the Office also found the term descriptive or generic as applied to related goods, like cider.

Plant varietal refusals don’t often make it to the TTAB. But, a prominent recent example saw Rainier Fruit Company’s attempt to register a lightly stylized version of HONEYCRISP for apples. Rainier didn’t even try to argue the cultivar issue — it disclaimed HONEYCRISP — but the stylization was not sufficiently distinctive.

In re Rainier Fruit Co., Ser. No. 86108344 (TTAB Sep. 29, 2015), available at https://ttabvue.uspto.gov/ttabvue/v?pno=86108344&pty=EXA&eno=10.

What’s getting through? Marks that pair HONEYCRISP with an additional, (more) distinctive elements. The two currently active registrations are a Supplemental Registration for PREMIER HONEYCRISP, with HONEYCRISP disclaimed, for “live honeycrisp apple trees,” and a Principal Register registration for ROYAL RED HONEYCRISP for “live apple trees.”

Takeaways for Trademark Lawyers

Please make sure your clients plan for trademark protection before filing for a plant varietal production certificate and plant patents. If trademark and patent counsel are not on the same page, using the cultivar name in the PVP certificate will be fatal to attempts to claim trademark rights in that term.

Results of the TM TKO 2021 Trademark Practice Economic Survey

For the past two weeks, TM TKO ran a survey about how trademark professionals are feeling about their practice in 2021. We’ll summarize the results in this blog post. Thanks to our users and to participants on Oppendhal Patent Law Firm’s e-trademarks listserv for their responses!

About TM TKO

A very quick word about us – TM TKO has been providing daily or subscription-based access to a variety of trademark research tools since 2015. Our customers include AmLaw 100 firms, trademark boutiques, solo practitioners, government agencies, in-house counsel, and more. We had our best year ever as a company in 2020, even if the year posed its challenges to us all as humans, and are looking forward to 2021. Our data covers the US, CA, MX, AU, NZ, EU, FR, DE, ES, the UK, and WIPO.

We aim to help trademark lawyers with three main pillars of all successful trademark practices: solving everyday problems, solving hard problems, and growing practices.

Everyday problems: our clearance, search, and watch tools help you with your day-to-day practice needs. Hard problems: specialized research tools like trademark Examiner analytics, automated and manual Office Action research, and comparative research via ThorCheck® can help overcome difficult prosecution refusals. Growing your practice: we have an expanding set of marketing solutions to help grow your client base and generate more projects for existing clients.

Haven’t used TM TKO yet? It’s free to try for 30 days.

To the Results!

Trademark Practice – Size and Geography

Our respondents were almost evenly split between solo and 2-5 lawyer IP practices, with about 20% in larger groups.

About 40% of respondents were from the east coast, 15% from the south, and the rest almost evenly split between the west and southwest. All but a couple of respondents were American lawyers. Of those, about 50% were in large cities, with the rest evenly divided between small and medium size cities.

Expectations for 2021

Two-thirds of attorneys are looking forward to 2021 being better than 2020, with most of the rest expecting a similar year. Unsurprisingly, given what a mess 2020 was in the real world, not too many expect the rest of 2021 to be worse than 2020!

Most respondents were neutral or optimistic about their personal practices, and most saw the greatest growth in small and midsize clients versus large companies. Large company work was the fastest-shrinking, among respondents.

Litigation and international prosecution slowed down the most; domestic prosecution and non-litigated dispute work were the most consistent growth areas. Transactional work and international prosecution work had about the same numbers of respondents who saw growth incoming and shrinkage, so there was no clear trend of those practice areas.

About two-thirds of respondents are seeing most of their new work come from existing clients, with referrals from in-country clients, business development efforts, and referrals from foreign counsel each attracting about half-as-many respondents as the new-work-source before it.

Remote work and professional growth in a post-Covid world.

About 40% think that the future will see more remote work than in the past, and another 20% expect continued remote work. Others didn’t move to a remote model anyway, it would be a temporary issue, or aren’t sure how this will play out. Of those expecting more remote work, around 30% was because employees prefer it, about 10% because management does, and about 14% see cost savings on office space as a benefit.

Almost two-thirds or respondents attend INTA in normal years, with other conferences or state bar meetings each racking up over 20% of respondents. Only about 40% plan to attend INTA this year, a pretty good drop; “other” events saw some growth (online CLEs?), and state bar meeting attendance rates seem likely to stay pretty constant. Perhaps it makes some sense that people are currently leery about attending highly international conferences in a world where vaccine distribution is far from equal; this may change as the year moves along and (hopefully) that situation changes.

Practice challenges in 2021

Perennial favorites like staffing issues, client acquisition, the cost structure of a process (and commoditization of it, on the flip side), and price pressures all received at least 20% of responses. Client retention and technology were, comparatively, minor worries.

Technology

Search, watch, and docketing were pretty ubiquitous, with IP investigative services at around 40% of respondents. Anti-piracy/counterfeiting services (2%) and trademark renewal services (2%) were far less frequently used by our respondents. Most practitioners kept their technology services pretty constant in 2020, and plan to do so in 2021 too.

Practice and the USPTO

About half of respondents replied that the USPTO hasn’t improved anything in the last several years, with occasional plaudits for website usability, 2(d) prosecution decisions, and TTAB decisions. Almost half of respondents think that 2(d) refusal decisions have gotten worse, and about a third found degradation in 2(e) refusals and other prosecution decisions. The TTAB was the least-listed, although whether that reflects on the merits of the Board’s decisions or just the fact that most practitioners don’t directly interact with the Board on a regular basis is beyond the scope of the survey.

Other comments

Our free-text comments focused on several common threads:

– unhappiness with the USPTO, both with its technology and the rate and thought processes behind 2(d) refusals
– dissatisfaction with the number of registrations that get through with iffy-to-fake specimens, and the greater amount of pushback that practitioners feel they are getting for specimens that have historically been acceptable.

Failing to Function – a Short Defense of a Frustratingly Vague Refusal

The USPTO has dramatically increased its use of the “failure to function” refusal in recent years. Total “failure to function” refusals jumped from under 400 in 2001 to under 1,300 in 2010 to over 3,600 in 2020.

We took a look at marks that have at least two words with a filing date September 1, 2019 and March 1, 2020 and got a failure to function refusal. Overall, the failure to function refusal is “holding up” with frequently. Overall, 75% of applications that received a failure to function refusal and have a “final” decision (abandoned / registered) went abandoned. Represented applicants did relatively better, but still only had a 32% registration rate vs. a woeful 15% for unrepresented applicants. Class 25 applicants fared especially badly, with only 12% getting through to registration. Lots of these marks had a “bumper sticker saying on a t-shirt” aire about them — applications for marks like GOD IS THE DESIGNER, MY 1ST CHRISTMAS, FAMILY DINNER SURVIVOR, STOP THE SPREAD, and DON’T TALK TO ME all foundered on the rocks of the failure to function refusal.

The failure to function refusal can be frustrating for applicants and their counsel, because it’s one of the least “defined” (either statutarily or via the TMEP). It’s never a good sign when the “statutory support” is as ill-defined as “Section 1, 2 and 45,” as is the failure to function refusal! The Trademark Office could help reduce this anxiety by better clarifying the line between an “informational message” or an “expressive statement” that doesn’t function as a source indicator vs. a slogan that does.

Nevertheless, it is clear that the failure to function refusal is serving an important purpose. It’s clearly keeping a lot of “marks” that are primarily informative or expressive rather than source-indicating off the trademark registry. In the long run, that’s a good thing, since it provides more room for the rest of society to engage in expressive speech without running into trademark claims.

Application Pendency and the USPTO

The USPTO’s trademark dashboard has a variety of pendency tracking. Despite a deluge of applications, the Office has kept up, by its own metrics: new applications are largely getting examined in the usual ~3 months from filing.

However, our Office Action Analysis tool data suggests that a lot of applications that are running into 2(d) and other substantive refusals are taking longer than usual to come to a final resolution. So, we did a breakdown on application pendency time. There isn’t the time to do a totally comprehensive survey; instead, we looked at how many applications got Office Actions with 2(d) refusals in January of 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, and 2019 to see how many went abandoned, and how quickly those that went through to publication did so.

2(d) Refusal Rates Over Time

About 20% of all applications got 2(d) refusals in each year. There were no significant changes. Obviously, with the uptick in total filings (roughly double 2009 levels), the total number of refusals is much higher.

The rates at which refused applications went abandoned without ever being published has been pretty steady over time, hovering between 50 – 55%.

Applications with minor issues

When the applicant resolves a 2(d) refusal, how quickly can they do so? In 2009, 29% of refused applications had made it through to publication within ~12 months, 37% by ~18 months, and most of the rest by 24 months. For more recent applications, it’s a very different picture. Applications overcoming a 2(d) refusal within 12 months has dropped to 21-22%, and publication rates within 2 years are down to around 33% of applications. It’s just taking longer to get to similar results.

Why is this? My guess is that the huge application volumes result in a larger registry, and more applications are getting held up on prior pending applications. So, it’s just taking longer to resolve refusals than ever before.

The raw data:

YearStatus% of Refusals
2020Pub in 1 year22%
Pub in 1.5 yearsna
Pub in 2 yearsna
Pending40%
2019Pub in 1 year22%
Pub in 1.5 years28%
Pub in 2 years34%
Pending7%
2018Pub in 1 year21%
Pub in 1.5 years29%
Pub in 2 years33%
Pending3%
2017Pub in 1 year22%
Pub in 1.5 years37%
Pub in 2 years50%
Pending0%

Have a great weekend, and a fantastic MLK Day holiday on Monday!

Internationalizing a Trademark Watch Portfolio in TM TKO

With TM TKO’s jurisdictional expansion, you’ll want to make sure that you are taking advantage of the ten new countries (CA, MX, EUIPO, FR, DE, ES, UK, AU, NZ, and WIPO) to protect your clients with watching. 

I. Creating International-Focused Watches based on a US Portfolio

Many practices have a bunch of US clients that are mainly active in the US, and some clients with more international business. Let’s walk through setting up a more selective portfolio to focus on these multinational clients.

Let’s pick a company as an example — we will use DomainTools. [We don’t represent or provide services to them or their counsel; this is purely an example. The same is true for all examples provided below.] A quick search indicates that its marks as held by Domain Tools Holdings, LLC (US and AU) and Domain Tools Holdings, SARL (EU). The goods and services covered in each are pretty similar.

Go to Portfolio and set up a new Attorney Portfolio — Attorney Portfolios drive watches, while Firm Portfolios are focused on conflict checks. Let’s give it a descriptive name – DomainTools international watch portfolio – keep the US as the “home” jurisdiction, and apply the watches in all ten jurisdictions. The “home” jurisdiction is important — DomainTools has registrations elsewhere, but we only need one “home” since their portfolio consists of the same mark protected in multiple places. If we had set up all countries as “home,” we’d have multiple overlapping watches for basically the same thing — the US, EU, and AU registrations cover basically the same classes and goods/services — and you would have to needlessly wade through extra results.

You’d only want to select multiple “home” jurisdictions if your clients had multiple key marks in different countries, e.g. a consumer products company with localized brands. Even there, you may want a more targeted search to avoid too much overlap. Your setup page will look like this:

If you want to “internationalize” only a single watch or a handful of watches in an existing portfolio, just go to the Watch tab then Manage, select the watch you want to expand internationally, and click Edit. Change the Jurisdiction selector to add whatever additional jurisdictions you want.

II. Setting Up Watches For Practices Outside the US

Let’s say you are a lawyer based outside of the US, and need to set up both domestic and international watching. The international part will be the same as we describe in part (I) of this blog post, above.

The domestic side can be a little more complex than in the US, where we can use correspondent email addresses to quickly set up a portfolio. The only international jurisdiction where any email addresses are in public data is Mexico, and even there it’s not complete.

We suggest using either attorney name or firm name firm name. Some jurisdictions have both, like Canada, but even there it’s not consistent — attorneys must enter their information in a particular way to get both covered. If your jurisdiction doesn’t allow you to limit by attorney name — and you are operating in a multi-lawyer practice group that doesn’t have shared clients — you may have to pair firm name + client names (add a group of Owner fields, separated by a Boolean OR) to focus on just your portfolio. 

As above, the firm / companies are used purely for example purposes.

Another way to do set up a watch portfolio would be to limit the watching to just domestic clients, as in the example below for a Canadian law firm.

III. Need a Hand?

Don’t hesitate to set up a time to talk if you need a hand! Just use the “schedule a consultation” link at the bottom of any page in TM TKO (after logging in), and we’ll be happy to assist and make sure you get the most out of this new international watching resource.

TM TKO Adds 10 New Trademark Jurisdictions

TM TKO is happy to announce that we have launched 10 new jurisdictions in our trademark clearance, watching, and prosecution research platform, more than doubling the number of searchable trademark records in TM TKO. TM TKO now covers the primary trademark filing jurisdictions for nearly 1 billion people worldwide, and provides partial coverage for nearly 100 additional jurisdictions via WIPO International Registration data.

The new countries and jurisdictions:

  • North America: Canada, Mexico
  • Europe: the European Union IP Office (EUIPO), France, Germany, Spain, the United Kingdom
  • Oceania: Australia, New Zealand
  • Global: the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
Thanks to MapChart.net for the great mapping tool.

The new jurisdictions are already integrated into TM TKO’s smart clearance search system, its watching and automated watch Portfolio setup tools, and its groundbreaking ThorCheck® prosecution and dispute research engine.

If you already enjoy using TM TKO, let your local counsel in these jurisdictions know to give us a try! If you have never tried TM TKO, or if you haven’t tried TM TKO lately, we’d be happy to show you all the new features. Email us at inquiries@tmtko.com to set up a time to talk. We have a free 30 day trial, and always have free training and support.

How Does TM TKO’s Smart Clearance Work?

Just enter your client’s mark and core products, and TM TKO will come up with the hundreds of search strategies needed to identify relevant marks and weight them appropriately. Let’s say your client is planning to use the mark UNSTOPPABLE FLAVOR, and wants to clear it in New Zealand and Australia. 

A bar graph will show you how TM TKO weights the component parts — it’s paying much more attention to UNSTOPPABLE than FLAVOR, since flavor is fairly diluted and the term shows up frequently in descriptions of goods.

TM TKO also plots out confusion risks to help you move through your analysis more quickly. More similar marks are plotted up the vertical axis, and more similar goods plotted horizontally. Here, a pair of registrations (shown in the same color to make families of marks stick out more) for UNSTOPPABLE for cereal owned by Kellogg, one in AU and one in NZ, stick out, with a registration for LITTLE BOTTLE OF UNSTOPPABLE for custards owned by Parmalat a bit to its left. Further down to the right, a bunch of marks including FLAVOR for coffee co-exist. Further down the report, you’ll also have a traditional table with full details of the results; this chart just provides a quick visual overview to speed up your review.

Our international expansion also sees us add improved translation options and data, for both the marks you are searching and underlying trademark registry data.

What Is ThorCheck?

ThorCheck is an analytical engine that will find evidence to support arguments for or against likelihood of confusion refusals (for jurisdictions with substantive ex parte examination) and oppositions (everywhere). You can use it in two ways: first, to analyze the strength of your arguments, and second, to generate evidence to support those arguments.

Using ThorCheck for Analysis. The ThorCheck report also gives you analysis about overlap — in addition to these examples of co-existence, how often does a single company own registrations that cover both goods? Here, there are both a number of examples of “intersection” — same mark and owner for both sets of goods — and “dissimilarity,” where different companies have happened to select identical or similar marks. (That count is typically lower because it relies on some chance.) This can help you analyze the strengths and weaknesses of your position.

Let’s say you are EU trademark counsel for a skateboard company. Your application gets opposed by a prior registration for a fairly similar mark for bicycles. ThorCheck can help! Plug in skateboards on one side and bicycles on the other, and you can get a read as to how much evidence there is on either side of the “related goods” question.

As for the evidentiary piece, ThorCheck will find examples of identical or similar marks with different owners, one for skateboards and one for bicycles. This can help you mount a convincing argument that the two sets of goods and services are not so closely related that confusion is likely — demonstrating actual market co-existence can really move the needle.

OwnerGoods/ServicesMarkMarkGoods/ServicesOwner
Globe International Nominees Pty Ltd028 skateboardsglobe
Reg: 003201365
Serial: 003201365
Registered
Reg: 12/01/2004
Filed: 07/01/2003
GLOBE
Reg: 000852731
Serial: 000852731
Registered
Reg: 02/06/2001
Filed: 06/09/1998
012 bicycles and tricyclesGlobe motem LLC
Emu Ridge Holdings Pty Ltd028 skateboardsEMU
Reg: 003611787
Serial: 003611787
Registered
Reg: 07/08/2005
Filed: 01/29/2004
EMU
Reg: 013423652
Serial: 013423652
Registered
Reg: 05/20/2015
Filed: 10/31/2014
012 bicycle trailersEmu Electric Bike Company Limited
WaterRower Inc.028 skateboardsSHOCKWAVE
Reg: 011254761
Serial: 011254761
Registered
Reg: 11/10/2013
Filed: 10/10/2012
SHOCKWAVE
Reg: 005208376
Serial: 005208376
Registered
Reg: 06/21/2007
Filed: 07/19/2006
012 bicyclesHalfords Limited
LUCA BRESSAN028 skateboardsSOLO
Reg: 011012598
Serial: 011012598 
Registered
Reg: 05/10/2013
Filed: 07/04/2012
SOLO
Reg: 002999464
Serial: 002999464 
Registered
Reg: 09/10/2004
Filed: 01/08/2003
012 bicycles and bicycles framesIndustries RAD Inc.
DONGGUAN AIXI INDUSTRIES LIMITED028 skateboardsBLITZ
Reg: 011078151
Serial: 011078151
Registered
Reg: 06/13/2013
Filed: 07/27/2012
BLITZ
Reg: 010777431
Serial: 010777431
Registered
Reg: 09/18/2012
Filed: 04/02/2012
012 bicyclesSodibike Comercio De Artigos Esportivos LTDA
Sport-Tiedje GmbH028 skateboardsTAURUS
Reg: 006236889
Serial: 006236889
Registered
Reg: 01/28/2011
Filed: 08/29/2007
Taurus
Reg: 010303758
Serial: 010303758
Registered
Reg: 03/30/2012
Filed: 09/30/2011
012 bicyclesBBF Bike GmbH
Firewire Ltd028 skateboardsFIREWIRE
Reg: 007188022
Serial: 007188022
Registered
Reg: 05/11/2009
Filed: 08/26/2008
FIREWIRE
Reg: 011619293
Serial: 011619293
Registered
Reg: 07/25/2013
Filed: 03/01/2013
012 bicyclesIson Distribution Ltd.
TRIBALIST LTD028 skateboardsRIDGE
Reg: 012944501
Serial: 012944501
Registered
Reg: 09/29/2014
Filed: 06/06/2014
RIDGE
Reg: 008838658
Serial: 008838658
Registered
Reg: 07/27/2010
Filed: 01/27/2010
012 bicyclesHalfords Limited
Representative examples only — there are many more quality examples you’d want to include in a real proceeding.

This evidence can turn the tide in a difficult opposition, by providing you registry-based evidence of the type of co-existence that your counter-party suggests will cause consumer confusion. 

ThorCheck isn’t just for goods/services comparisons! You can also use ThorCheck to find co-existing marks that differ by a single term (i.e. marks that are identical or very similar, except one has STUDIO and one doesn’t), or find registrations with two terms that co-exist (like HAWK and BIRD) in a class.

How Does TM TKO Approach Watching?

All subscriptions to TM TKO include unlimited watching, built on its smart clearance engine. As a TM TKO user, the days of having to sell clients on hard vendor costs to get them to move into a watching regime are over. Protect them and generate valuable work opportunities for you practice!

It is easy to set up a watching portfolio based on your firm name, email address, or a client name or names, depending on what information your “home” country provides. We provide an initial training session to help you get your watching set up to your specifications, and you can reap the rewards.

If You Aren’t a TM TKO User: Try For Free!

TM TKO comes with a free 30-day trial to make sure that our tools match the way you prefer to work. We’re happy to set up a web meeting to walk you through all of the tools and get your watching set up, so you get the full value out of the platform.

If you decide to use TM TKO post-trial, you have two options. First, a $75 daily pass that provides 24 hours of use of anything but watch, for more transactional research projects. Second, a subscription that also provides unlimited watching. Subscriptions are $250/mo or $2500/yr for one seat, and prices increase gradually for additional seats — for example, 5 seats are $500/mo or $5000/yr.

Current TM TKO Users: What Does This Expansion Mean for You?

You get a whole lot more features for exactly the same price tag! We don’t have any jurisdictional gating or other pricing-driven access limitations. If you are a TM TKO user, you now have access to all this new data. 

The easiest way to take advantage of the new international watching features is to set up a new Portfolio or Portfolios for your multinational clients’ key marks. We will have a blog post up shortly to walk you through that process.

Differing Approaches to Protecting Sports Brands Internationally — MLB and the Premier League

This is going to end up a very short post, even if the research ended up taking a while! We decided to compare the extent to which Major League Baseball and the Premier League teams protected their IP, comparing US filings for the Premier League teams and EUIPO filings for the baseball teams.

Baseball had pretty comprehensive filings for key marks in the EUIPO in Classes 25 (clothing merch) and 41 (games / etc.). The top of the Prem’s financial tables had similar coverage, but the bottom — newly promoted or up-and-down teams like Leeds, Burnley, Fulham, West Brom, and Sheffield United — had no US coverage; Aston Villa had a registration in Class 25 but not 41. Even an upper-middle-class team, by both the table and revenues, Everton, had no US filings for its house mark.

What accounts for this difference? It may be due to organizational differences. While MLB teams own their own marks domestically, MLB registers marks on its teams’ behalf internationally. Teams in the Prem appear to on their own — and a less-popular team may view international coverage as a great investment if they just don’t have much of a fan base outside of their local market. Among the US major sports, baseball and hockey are generally thought of as having more local fan bases than the nationally-driven interest in the NBA and NFL, but they haven’t stinted on their European brand protection efforts.

Sympathy for the Regulator

The Difficulties Facing the US Patent & Trademark Office in Examining Specimens

The trademark community has been mildly frustrated with the Trademark Office in 2020 and into 2021 for two related reasons:

  • the feeling that a lot of crap has gotten onto the trademark registry, largely weird marks originating from China. Many of these are alleged to have dubious specimens or other issues with use claims, e.g. claiming use on a broad swathe of goods.
  • the feeling that otherwise perfectly valid specimens are getting caught up needlessly by new examination standards, increasing prosecution times and costs.

Let’s look at this from the Trademark Office’s perspective, and take a look at some examples of the sorts of applications that tend to generate practitioner discontent.

I. Spot-Checking New Applications For Specimen Issues

I focused on 1-word, use-based US filings without design elements filed by Chinese applicants in December 2020. I further restricted to just those that have the text “no meaning” to avoid translation/transliterations. The types of marks this generates – TERIQO, BEIYEIDEI, FABSMURD, MIZILI, URCHESE, FEOICH, and GOMNOA, are the sort of marks that tend to generate a skeptical eyebrow raise from practitioners. It’s a little ironic that these marks that generate practitioner skepticism are the most inherently distinctive marks on the protectability spectrum, since they’re gibberish in the first place.

Let’s take a look at these seven examples.

  • TERIQO for scissors, tweezers, etc. (specimen)
    • I’m not sure; it’s a screenshot and invoice from SellersGlobal. The photo of the hand actually holding the tweezers is the easiest to see, and looks legit. The shipping address on the invoice is partially redacted, but seems to be missing an actual street address anyway.
  • BEIYEIDEI for toys (specimen)
    • The photo looks pretty gritty/real.
  • FABSMURD for toys and pet toys (specimen)
    • Looks real; used on a tag. Multiple angles help and demonstrate “reality” well.
  • MIZILI for paper products (specimen)
    • Used on a point-of-sale eBay website. Probably “real,” although the page doesn’t show if the mark is also used on the physical product.
  • URSCHSE for various sorts of bags (specimen)
    • From an online receipt shipping to the US. Receipts are a bit weird, since it should be the customer getting the receipt not the intermediary vendor (CoolMall), but it does at least seem to show shipping to the US.
  • FEOICH for cosmetics (specimen)
    • Same as above – CoolMall receipts.
  • GOMNOA for candles and gasoline (specimen)
    • Amazon sales pages for candles. Candles and fuel usually aren’t provided under the same mark, so the scope of the goods covered in the use claim seem more debatable than the specimen itself.

None of these seem to be clear problems taken on their own merits. But, what about in the aggregate?

II. The Broader Question — What Kind of Registry Do We Want?

There were 32,986 applications that met these narrow criteria in just December 2020. That’s a TON of applications. For comparison, in December 2015, there were 30,098 US applications filed in total. That’s 2,000 less than just this this subset of China-based 1(a), 1-word, not-a-translation, standard character marks applications!

Let’s assume that many of these sales/shipments are pretty low-volume, at least at the time of registration. What could be done to preserve a smaller registry that reflect the marks that US consumers are actually likely to encounter? One option might be to require a certain volume of commercial activity. This could avoid the issue of sellers obtaining registrations for de miminis sales through online platforms that aren’t very big in the US. This would obviously have some serious impacts, cutting off registration as an option for new ventures, or at least pushing more small businesses to “sit on” an ITU application while building up their commercial presence. It would also raise difficulties for non-commercial brands that don’t generate sales. Some of these could be addressed by evidence other than sales, like website visits from US IP addresses or the like (potentially game-able, but more work), or just by having different use standards for domestic and foreign applicants (though that may raise equal protection issues).

We certainly don’t have a perfect solution — we’d love to hear your thoughts as the Office continues to grapple with these examination complexities.

The Trademark Modernization Act of 2020 — some thoughts

We took advantage of the holiday week to sit down and do some not-directly-work reading: the Trademark Modernization Act of 2020. It’s incredibly dumb that it had to be a part of the broader coronavirus relief act to get passed, but oh well.

The big focus is on providing new tools to keep the trademark registry narrower and more reflective of the actual US marketplace. There are a whole bunch of goodies in the grab-bag legislation.

I. Expungement Proceedings

Cribbing from Canada’s trademark law, the Act adds an ex parte expungement proceeding. It kicks off with a petition claiming that the mark has never been used in commerce or in connection with some or all of the goods or services in the registration. The petitioner has to provide “the elements of a reasonable investigation” to support the non-use claim and a tbd fee. There is a separate “proceeding” for each good or service for which there is a prima facie case; presumably, those get consolidated into a single actual proceeding; the registrant provides evidence of use or excusable non-use evidence, and the director makes a decision. The Act does not change or further define excusable non-use, so it may end up being a big loophole.

Intriguingly, the Director may institute an ex parte expungement proceeding of the Office’s own accord. This could be a big deal, if the Office is aggressive in clearing away some of the dubious registrations that have been on the upswing recently.

A few small technical details: co-pending proceedings aren’t allowed — wait your turn! — and successfully defending on expungement proceeding prevents future expungement proceedings forever for the goods/services at issue. I get the need for certainty, but this feels like it could be easily gamed — a company could have a friendly party institute a proceeding three years after registration, easily show use for all goods/services, and be immune from those challenges forever. I suppose non-use cancellation actions always remain, so it’s a limited form of immunity — hopefully it doesn’t develop into an issue.

In all, this should be a great change. The Canadian expungement mechanism works well, and it should be a solid addition to the US practitioners’ toolbox. It should be a nice boon to your favorite IP investigator, too.

II. Re-Examination

The Act adds a Section 16(b), a new mechanism to petition for re-examination on the grounds that the mark was not in use as of the use claim. The petitioner must provide similar evidence as an expungement petitioner. Presumably, petitioners will use this process to take a whack at improper-looking 1(a) registrations prior to the three-year “challenge period” date, and just use expungement otherwise — except in exceptional circumstances, where the applicant didn’t have use at registration but started thereafter. Similar limitations on later ex parte proceedings apply; as with expungement, there is no estoppel as to future inter partes proceedings.

III. Third-Party Submission of Evidence

Section 223 of the Act allows third parties to submit additional types of evidence — basically, it broadens the types of evidence permitted under Letters of Protest to be more or less anything, at the Director’s discretion. I’m sure the Director is thrilled at the opportunity to sift through all the garbage that would have been inadmissible via Letter of Protest! But, if there are some meaningful filing fees that go along with it, this probably ends up being a change that doesn’t have too much impact.

IV. Cancellation Grounds

The Act adds a new ground for cancellation: if the mark “has never been used” for some or all of the goods/services. This should be an easier burden to carry than proving “abandonment,” which the TTAB has always been weirdly hesitant about. This should be a fantastic change.

V. Litigation Changes

Congress responded to some case law that made preliminary injunctions more difficult for plaintiffs to get. After a Supreme Court case changed the injunction landscape for patents, eBay Inc. v. MercExchange, L.L.C., 547 U.S. 388 (2006), the Third, Ninth, and Eleventh Circuits also made trademark injunctions much more difficult to get, emphasizing the need for proof that irreparable harm is likely. Other courts got hopelessly muddled about what standard to apply and why. The Act has addressed this issue by essentially restoring the old, more plaintiff-friendly standard.

Section 226(a) changes/clarifies the standards for injunctions. Now, for permanent injunctions, irreparable harm no longer needs to be proven — a plaintiff that wins on the merits basically gets a permanent injunction automatically. For preliminary injunctions, the plaintiff needs only to show a likelihood of success on the merits, not that plus proof of irreparable harm.

This is good change. If a plaintiff has succeeded in proving (or being likely to prove) that confusion is likely, it’s dumb to have to then prove that it deserves an injunction, too. This should reduce litigation costs a bit and encourage quicker settlement after the PI decision basically decides the case in one party’s favor or the other.

VI. Flexible Deadlines

The Act provides that the Office can request an Office Action Response in as few as 60 days instead of the default 6 months, and provides for an extension process.

The impact of this depends on what the Office decides to do. Perhaps it will have shorter deadlines for Office Actions that raise only certain simple, defined issues, like ID amendments and specimen issues? If so, this could be a good change to reduce application pendency. The key is doing this is a way that is simple and communicates (via status code or document name) what the deadline will be. If all it does is create uncertainty in docketing deadlines, this could be an annoying change that negatively impacts practitioners.

We’re now past the important changes, but not through all the changes.

VII. Probably Pointless Paperwork

The Office needs to provide a report on these various “decluttering” initiatives for members of Congress to not-bother-reading in three years. Section 227. The Office will probably just add the various tracking data Congress is requiring to a dashboard, print it to a PDF when the report is due, and tack on a few additional recommendations that the Trademark Advisory Committee is nagging it about in the months prior to the report deadline.

VIII. Weird Amendments

Section 228 clarifies that the Director has authority “to reconsider, and modify or set aside, a decision of the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board.” Um, OK? It’s not clear why this needed to be clarified or what it changes, or what weird lobbying path resulted in this getting thrown into the Act. Stay tuned to

Using ThorCheck and Office Action Research to Respond to a 2(d) Refusal

This post will provide a few examples of how TM TKO’s tools can help address a real-world 2(d) refusal. For this example, we looked at an application for SURFSIDE SHRIMP for food and retail services. The application went abandoned in mid-September 2020, after getting 2(d) refusals citing several prior marks: a registration for SURFSIDE for restaurant services, a now-abandoned application for SURFSIDE 6 for restaurant services, and a registration for JSC SURFSIDE SEAFOOD (disclaiming SEAFOOD) for a variety of seafood products.

Service Differences

Let’s start with the SURFSIDE registration for restaurant services. One argument we’ll definitely want to make is the differences between food products and restaurant services. The case-law is mixed, with the Office holding that there is no per se rule that food and beverages are related to restaurants, but with the Office also accepting evidence of overlap of two sets of products and services focused on famous brands like DUNKIN DONUTS and THE CHEESECAKE FACTORY rather than on the norms for those industries.

A good place to start here is by finding some examples of identical or very similar marks co-existing, one for seafood products and the other for restaurant services. This is a textbook ThorCheck research project.

Go to the G/S Similarity variant of ThorCheck. Put in a few restaurant-related services as the First Party services and fish and seafood-related products in the Second Party goods. There are two sets of arguments you can glean from the ThorCheck report.

First, you can analyze the extent of overlap. There is some overlap here — 57 registrations that cover both sets of goods and services (the “intersection” section) and another 12 or so in multiple registration certificates (the “similarity” section). These are a very small percentage of the overall restaurant marks (34k+) and seafood marks (2.9k+).

Second, you can find counter-examples under the Dissimilarity column: marks with identical literal portions (26 Exact) and with some substantial, non-disclaimed terms in common (348). These examples help counter the Examiner’s assertions about overlap under the second DuPont factor, bringing that factor closer to neutral or even favorable.

You’d want to tag your favorite examples, export them to Word to integrate the summary chart into your Office Action Response draft, and hit the “TSDR” export button to get status and title copies to attach as an appendix to your response. (Ah, for the day the USPTO would take notice of its own records! Until then… the TSDR Export feature is here for you.) Representative examples follow — there are many, many more high-quality examples in the report.

OwnerGoods/ServicesMarkMarkGoods/ServicesOwner
NISHIKI DINER USA, INC.043 restaurant servicesULTRA
Disclaims: “MENYA”
Reg: 5382174
Serial: 87284854
Registered
Reg: 01/16/2018
Filed: 12/29/2016
ULTRA
Reg: 5073682
Serial: 86287564
Registered
Reg: 11/01/2016
Filed: 05/21/2014
029 seafood, namely, frozen seafood, not liveSea Farms, Inc.
WE JING INTERNATIONAL CO., LTD.043 restaurant and bar servicesMYFISH
Reg: 5556825
Serial: 87532123
Registered
Reg: 09/04/2018
Filed: 07/18/2017
MYFISH Reg: 5218513 Serial: 87227227 Registered Reg: 06/06/2017 Filed: 11/04/2016029 seafood, not liveBUMBLE BEE FOODS, LLC
COMPASS GROUP HOLDINGS PLC043 restaurant servicesCOMPASS Reg: 2941437
Serial: 76585606 Registered And Renewed
Reg: 04/19/2005
Filed: 04/08/2004
COMPASS
Reg: 1288058
Serial: 73435352
Registered And Renewed
Reg: 07/31/1984
Filed: 07/20/1983
029 seafood productsOcean Garden Products, Inc.
MAMBO MARKS, LLC043 restaurant servicesMAMBO
Reg: 3709148
Serial: 77187552
Registered And Renewed
Reg: 11/10/2009
Filed: 05/22/2007
MAMBO
Reg: 5813995
Serial: 87386280
Registered
Reg: 07/23/2019
Filed: 03/27/2017
029 frozen seafoodQuirch Foods Co.
J. CHANG, INC.043 restaurant and bar servicesMIYAKO
Reg: 3614622
Serial: 77397285
Registered
Reg: 05/05/2009
Filed: 02/14/2008
MIYAKO
Reg: 4611647
Serial: 76715351
Section 8 & 15 – Accepted And Acknowledged
Reg: 09/30/2014
Filed: 11/12/2013
029 frozen fishMutual Trading Co., Inc.
HEAVENLY VENTURES TRADING LLC043 restaurant and bar servicesCORKSCREW
Reg: 3780866
Serial: 77826132
Registered And Renewed
Reg: 04/27/2010
Filed: 09/14/2009
CORKSCREW
Reg: 5847124
Serial: 88240862
Registered
Reg: 08/27/2019
Filed: 12/24/2018
029 seafood, not liveOre-Cal Corporation
Seminole Tribe of Florida043 restaurant servicesFRESH HARVEST
Reg: 4272430
Serial: 85713366
Section 8 & 15 – Accepted And Acknowledged
Reg: 01/08/2013
Filed: 08/27/2012
FRESH HARVEST
Disclaims: “FRESH”
Reg: 2664205
Serial: 76170562
Registered And Renewed
Reg: 12/17/2002
Filed: 11/24/2000
029 seafoodTrans Family, Inc.
Long, Bart043 restaurant servicesBLUE CIRCLE
Reg: 4395107
Serial: 85757452
Section 8 – Accepted
Reg: 09/03/2013
Filed: 10/18/2012
BLUE CIRCLE
Reg: 3758778
Serial: 77606046
Registered And Renewed
Reg: 03/09/2010
Filed: 11/03/2008
029 fresh fish and seafood, not liveBlue Sea LLC
Lakefront Brewery, Inc.043 restaurant servicesLAKEFRONT
Reg: 5112090
Serial: 86777659
Registered
Reg: 01/03/2017
Filed: 10/05/2015
LAKEFRONT
Reg: 2506327
Serial: 76152074
Registered And Renewed
Reg: 11/13/2001
Filed: 10/19/2000
029 processed seafoodLouisiana Premium Seafoods, Inc.
Starfish Laguna Beach LLC043 restaurant and bar servicesSTARFISH
Reg: 5974695
Serial: 86826352
Registered
Reg: 02/04/2020
Filed: 11/19/2015
STARFISH
Reg: 2682103
Serial: 75628250
Registered And Renewed
Reg: 02/04/2003
Filed: 01/26/1999
029 seafoodDULCICH, INC.
Tavistock Restaurants Upscale Group, LLC043 restaurant and bar servicesTOP CATCH
Reg: 5312613
Serial: 87059055
Registered
Reg: 10/17/2017
Filed: 06/03/2016
TOP CATCH
Reg: 2156853
Serial: 75297283
Registered And Renewed
Reg: 05/12/1998
Filed: 05/23/1997
029 processed seafoodTop Catch, Inc.
Hot Mess, LLC043 cafe and restaurant servicesGIANT
Reg: 5670352
Serial: 88011196
Registered
Reg: 02/05/2019
Filed: 06/22/2018
GIANT
Reg: 3986603
Serial: 77920107
Section 8 & 15 – Accepted And Acknowledged
Reg: 06/28/2011
Filed: 01/26/2010
029 seafoodAHOLD DELHAIZE LICENSING SARL
Urban Roots Brewery, LP043 restaurant servicesURBAN ROOTS
Reg: 5577096
Serial: 87594071
Registered
Reg: 10/02/2018
Filed: 09/01/2017
URBAN ROOT
Reg: 5698383
Serial: 87596331
Registered Reg: 03/12/2019
Filed: 09/05/2017
029 prepared food kits composed of meat, poultry, fish, seafood, and/or vegetables and also including sauces or seasonings, ready for cooking and assembly as a mealBALDOR SPECIALTY FOODS, INC.
Li, Meiling043 restaurant servicesIKKO
Reg: 6033669
Serial: 88627256
Registered
Reg: 04/14/2020
Filed: 09/23/2019
IKKO
Reg: 4001245
Serial: 85088335
Section 8 & 15 – Accepted And Acknowledged
Reg: 07/26/2011
Filed: 07/20/2010
029 seafoodTrue World Holdings LLC
Duke University043 restaurant servicesDUKE
Reg: 5568287
Serial: 87530381
Registered
Reg: 09/25/2018
Filed: 07/17/2017
DUKE
Reg: 2740546
Serial: 78163076
Registered And Renewed
Reg: 07/22/2003
Filed: 09/11/2002
029 seafoodYelin Enterprise Co., Ltd.
CORNER INVESTMENT COMPANY, LLC043 restaurant servicesEATWELL
Reg: 5588828
Serial: 87573326
Registered
Reg: 10/23/2018
Filed: 08/17/2017
EATWELL
Reg: 4638546
Serial: 86191230
Registered
Reg: 11/11/2014
Filed:
02/12/2014
029 seafood, not liveStarkist Co.
Our blog software doesn’t love having images inside of tables, so just imagine that 20% of the records above have logos embedded in the mark or some light textual stylization.

It would be better if the Office considered normal trends instead of just cherry-picking examples, but the case law is what it is, and ThorCheck empowers you to find examples that help you make the case that confusion is unlikely.

We can also do research in Office Actions to find examples of fish/seafood marks overcoming refusals for restaurant services, using a search like this:

This finds some great examples of co-existing registrations, like YOUR FISH! (stylized) for seafood overcoming a prior reg for OUR FISHERMAN, YOUR FISH for restaurant services, ROUNDABOUT for seafood meals overcoming a prior registration for ROUNDABOUT BREWERY for brewpub services, DEEP LOUISIANA FLAVOR for seafood overcoming FLAVORS OF LOUISIANA for restaurant services, BLUE ISLE for seafood overcoming BLUE ISLAND and BLUE ISLAND OYSTER BAR, SKIPPER’S BEST for seafood overcoming prior registrations for SKIPPER’S for restaurants, and many more. These are great for two reasons. First, you can use them like litigators use briefs — to build your best argument on the shoulders of the successes that came before you. Second, you can provide these examples of withdrawn 2(d) refusals to your Examining Attorney to help provide them comfort that they can do as you ask without incurring the wrath of the internal publication review process.

Need more examples? Click on the drop-down by New Search and select Invert Criteria, and see restaurant marks that overcame prior registrations in the seafood space — these are conceptually very similar, and also provide you strong examples.

Mark Differences

There are several types of research we can do on the mark front.

First, we can use TM TKO’s Office Action analysis tool to do automated research for similar marks that overcame 2(d) refusals. It finds that the SURFSIDE registrant in the restaurant space made extensive arguments about co-existence of other SURFSIDE marks in the restaurant space, in trying to argue around prior registrations for SURFSIDE 5 and SURFSIDE 6. The prior registrations were eventually cancelled. While there is no formal prosecution history estoppel doctrine, it certainly doesn’t hurt to point out that the cited registrant thinks that SURFSIDE won’t be confused with other SURFSIDE marks in the restaurant space, much less for packaged seafood!

The Office Action Analysis tool also finds a set of arguments for a still-pending application for Asian-themed seafood meals that has argued against the JSC SURFSIDE SEAFOOD mark, here. These can be a helpful starting point in planning and drafting a response.

Second, we can use ThorCheck to focus on mark-related differences. For JSC SURFSIDE SEAFOOD, the goods are more similar, and the similarity of the marks is the main issue. (This is also a tougher refusal overall.) We’ll want to start with a Term Difference search, and search for “shrimp” with the “Dissimilarity (different owners)” option selected. This will find marks that are otherwise identical or at least share key terms; one has SHRIMP and one doesn’t. This finds example of co-existence like the marks below, where the presence of the generic word “shrimp” nevertheless helps differentiate two marks.

OwnerGoods/ServicesMarkMarkGoods/ServicesOwner
NaturalShrimp Incorporated029 raw shrimp featuring no pesticides, no antibiotics and no chemical additives, grown in self-contained recirculating bio-secure saltwater environmentNATURALSHRIMP
Reg: 6122073
Serial: 88498493 Registered w/ 2(f) claim
Reg: 08/11/2020 Filed: 07/02/2019
MYNATURAL
Reg: 6143014
Serial: 88480582
Registered
Reg: 09/01/2020
Filed: 06/19/2019  
029 fruit-based snack food; prepared nuts; vegetables; dried; jams; fruit chips; frosted fruits; powdered soya milk; vegetable-based snack foodsLIOUX, INC.
CERTI-FRESH FOODS, INC.029 frozen shrimp“SHRIMPLY THE BEST”
Reg: 3526116
Serial: 76494802
Registered And Renewed
Reg: 11/04/2008
Filed: 02/27/2003
BEST
Reg: 4315088
Serial: 85670748
Supplemental Reg.
Section 8 – Accepted
Reg: 04/02/2013
Filed: 07/06/2012  
029 seafoodBest International Trading, Inc.
Bubba Gump Shrimp Co.029 prepared entrees consisting primarily of shrimp for consumption on and off the premisesSHRIMPER’S HEAVEN
Reg: 3394390
Serial: 77197998
Registered And Renewed
Reg: 03/11/2008
Filed: 06/05/2007
HEAVEN SENT
Reg: 5236932
Serial: 87259070
Registered
Reg: 07/04/2017
Filed: 12/06/2016  
029 coconut oil; coconut oil and fat; (…)Exel-Pak, Inc.
Tampa Bay Fisheries, Inc.029 shrimp, not liveSHRIMPLY DELICIOUS Reg: 4649927 Serial: 85957740   Registered Reg: 12/02/2014 Filed: 06/12/2013SO DELICIOUS Reg: 3867331 Serial: 77965368   Section 8 & 15 – Accepted And Acknowledged Reg: 10/26/2010 Filed: 03/22/2010029 non-dairy creamer; processed coconutTurtle Mountain, LLC
LANDRY’S TRADEMARK, INC.029 prepared meals consisting primarily of shrimp and chickenSHRIMPKENS Reg: 3082477 Serial: 78617964   Registered And Renewed Reg: 04/18/2006 Filed: 04/27/2005KEN’S Reg: 1134235 Serial: 73084452   Registered And Renewed Reg: 04/29/1980 Filed: 04/19/1976029 salad dressing, cole slaw dressing, mayonnaise and other dairy, vegetable, fruit, and/or oil based food dressingsKEN’S FOODS, INC.
Schlesser, Robert043 restaurant servicesSHRIMP XPRESS
Reg: 5075372
Serial: 86826974
Supplemental Reg.
Registered
Reg: 11/01/2016
Filed: 11/20/2015
ROE XPRESS
Disclaims: “EXPRESS”
Reg: 5319995
Serial: 86882107
Registered
Reg: 10/31/2017
Filed: 01/21/2016
043 restaurant servicesSo Cal Restaurant Group LLC
RICH PRODUCTS CORPORATION043 providing information about seafood for others, namely, recipes, seafood restaurant reviewsSHRIMPTACULAR
Reg: 4653276
Serial: 85671917
Registered
Reg: 12/09/2014
Filed: 07/09/2012  
SPEGGTACULAR
Reg: 5657635
Serial: 87772562
Registered
Reg: 01/15/2019
Filed: 01/26/2018  
043 restaurant servicesGoufas, Emmanuel
PINNACLE ENTERTAINMENT, INC.043 restaurant servicesSHRIMP-A-PALOOZA
Reg: 5834152
Serial: 88283949
Registered
Reg: 08/13/2019
Filed: 01/31/2019
WING-A-PALOOZA
Reg: 4860445
Serial: 86244730
Registered
Reg: 11/24/2015
Filed: 04/07/2014
043 restaurant servicesPizza Hut, Inc.

Is this going to be enough to turn the tide? It’s not clear — the marks share their most distinctive term, which is always tough even if it’s also suggestive of something about the products.

As always, please don’t hesitate to reach out to us at support@tmtko.com or set up a time to talk via a web meeting if you need a hand with any research projects! We love to help.